2016年简报第三期
2016-06-28 15:29:40   来源:   评论:0 点击:

 中国贸促会经贸摩擦海外常年法律顾问(美国)2016年简报第三期  总第六期
 
2016年2月3日
 
美国奥斯顿律师事务所  北京市高朋律师事务所
 
 
简报摘要:本期简报包括六个部分。第一部分为中美贸易政策方面的最新新闻,主要概述美国力图调整国防预算以对抗中国军事力量的发展;第二部分为中美贸易与经济方面的最新新闻,主要内容包括重要的美国商业协会美中贸易全国委员会要求美国在2016年12月之后给予中国市场经济地位、中国和美国结束中美第24轮双边投资协定谈判并承诺在2016年加快谈判、学术研究McCoy项目指出中国三大国有银行卷入假冒奢侈品交易;第三部分为贸易救济和国际贸易领域的法律发展,主要介绍美国近期启动的贸易救济调查、美国对中国正在调查的贸易救济案件的最新动态、美国国际贸易法院近期就美国对中国的贸易救济调查所进行的相关诉讼的裁决;第四部分为美国法律发展,主要内容包括美国将于2月4日签署TPP以及美国总统奥巴马与美国国会众参两院领导关于TPP批准谈判失败、美国众议院筹款委员会表示将对美国与中国和印度的交涉进行积极监督;第五部分为世界贸易组织方面的最新新闻,主要内容包括中国在《WTO信息技术协定》下获得较长期限的关税逐步废止资格、中国就其被指控的农业补贴通知WTO、中国与海湾合作委员会重启自由贸易协定谈判;第六部分为近期的智囊机构和学术研究,主要内容为纽约大学计算机科学系18个月的学术研究表明中国三大主要国有银行卷入假冒奢侈品交易。
 
 

 
一、U.S.- China Politics
中美贸易政策
 
U.S. Seeks to Bolster Defense Budget to Counter China: U.S. Defense Secretary Ashton Carter outlined priority U.S. security concerns in a speech in Washington on February 2. While Russia was identified as a primary security threat to U.S. interests in Europe, Carter noted significant adjustments in the U.S. defense budget were necessitated by China’s increasing and asymmetrical gains in military power. The U.S. defense chief cited in particular China’s development of “weapons and ways of war that seek to achieve their objectives rapidly” and before the U.S. may respond, including its ship killing missiles and electronic warfare. Carter’s new $582.7 billion defense budget request calls for major spending on cyber security, submarines, new robotic boats and underwater vessels as well as new missile interceptors to be installed on American warships.
美国力图支持国防预算以对抗中国:美国国防部长Ashton Carter于2月2日在华盛顿进行的一个演讲中概述美国主要的安全问题。虽然俄罗斯被认为是美国在欧洲利益的主要安全威胁,但是Carter指出中国在军事力量上的不断增长及不对称的增加迫使美国国防预算做出重大调整。美国国防部长特别指出中国在武器和战争方式上的迅速发展,以及反舰导弹和电子战争技术的发展。Carter最新的5827亿美元的国防预算主要用于网络安全、潜艇、新式机器人船、水下舰艇以及安装在美国战舰上的新式导弹拦截器。
 
Carter also renewed criticisms of Chinese naval expansion in the South China Sea, and claimed that Chinese actions had a destabilizing effect on the region. Carter noted that a major result of Chinese policy has been to cause many Asian nations to restore strong security ties to the United States, including Vietnam, Australia, the Philippines and Japan.
Carter还重申对于中国在南海进行海军扩张的谴责,称中国的举动破坏该地区的稳定。Carter指出,中国南海政策的一个重要后果就是使得许多亚洲国家重新恢复与美国的紧密安全关系,这些亚洲国家包括越南、澳大利亚、菲律宾和日本。
 
For Chinese industry, particularly Chinese investors, the deepening security competition in Asia may lead to heightened U.S. scrutiny of Chinese investment in sectors linked to the U.S. defense industrial base, and will contribute to growing political alarm in the U.S. Congress over China’s strategic objectives in Asia.
对于中国产业,尤其是中国投资者,不断加深的在亚洲的安全竞争可能导致增强美国对于中国在与美国国防工业基地相关领域投资的严格审查,同时将导致美国国会对中国在亚洲战略目标的不断增加的政治担忧。
 
 
二、U.S.-China Trade & Economics
中美贸易与经济
 
Leading U.S. Business Group Calls for Market Status for China: The U.S.-China Business Council (USCBC) has recommended the United States grant China market economy status in antidumping cases in accordance with the terms of China’s WTO accession. USCBC released on January 20 its 2016 Board of Directors' Statement of Priorities in the U.S.-China Commercial Relationship, observing that the change in stats would serve to build confidence and help to ensure mutually beneficial commercial relations. USCBC becomes the first major trade association to state its position on the market status issue, and the Council argues that the terms of China’s WTO accession do not provide the legal flexibility that would allow countries to continue to deny China market status treatment after December, 2016.
重要的美国商业协会要求给予中国市场经济地位:美中贸易全国委员会(USCBC)建议美国根据中国入世议定书的相关条款,在美国对中国的反倾销调查中给予中国市场经济地位。USCBC于1月20日发布其2016年董事会关于中美贸易关系中重点问题的声明,指出给与中国市场经济地位将有利于建立信心并保证双边互利的贸易关系。USCBC是第一个表明其对于中国市场经济地位所持观点的重要贸易协会,其认为,中国入世议定书的相关条款并未提供法律上的弹性能够允许WTO成员方在2016年12月以后继续否认中国的市场经济地位。
 
BIT Negotiations Conclude 24th Round, Speed Promised: China and the U.S. concluded the 24th round of negotiations toward a bilateral investment treaty (BIT) on January 27 in Beijing. Secretary of State John Kerry and Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi pledged to “accelerate” negotiations during 2016. Major difficulties in the negotiation continue, however, as this BIT marks the first time China has agreed to a “negative list” approach to negotiations. Analysts speculate that Foreign Minister Wang’s statement is in part directed at various Chinese government ministries now slowly working through the many policy and political considerations that must be undertaken in order for China to formulate a comprehensive negative list.
第24轮双边投资协定谈判结束,承诺加快谈判:中国和美国于1月27日在北京结束中美第24轮双边投资协定谈判。美国国务卿John Kerry和中国外交部部长王毅承诺在2016年加快谈判。谈判中的主要难点依然存在,但是,本次双边投资协定坦帕是中国首次同意通过负面清单方式进行谈判。分析家们推测中国外交部部长王毅的言论部分地针对许多中国政府部门制定有关中国制定全面的负面清单所必须遵守的相关政策进程较慢。
 
Academic Study Links Major Chinese Banks to Counterfeiting Scam: McCoy’s project is a collaboration with Florida attorney Stephen Gaffigan and four of the world’s largest luxury goods brands—which decline to be named. The Bank of China, the Bank of Communications, and Agricultural Bank of China handled 97 percent of 300 fake goods purchases made during McCoy’s project, which has been running for nearly 18 months. All three are owned by the Chinese government.
学术研究指出中国主要的银行卷入假冒奢侈品交易:McCoy项目是与佛罗里达律师Stephen Gaffigan以及四大全球最大的不愿透露品牌名称的奢侈品品牌的一个合作。在长达近18个月的McCoy项目调查中,300次假冒商品购买中,有97%是由中国银行、交通银行和中国农业银行处理的。
 
 
三、Trade Remedies and Legal Developments in International Trade
贸易救济和国际贸易领域的法律发展
 
Commerce to Commence Sunset Reviews: Effective February 1st, the U.S. Department of Commerce (“DOC”) will conduct sunset reviews on antidumping duty (“AD”) and countervailing duty (“CVD”) orders placed on Magnesium Metal (A-570-896) and Porcelain-On-Steel Cooking Ware (A-570-506), both from China. Concurrently, the International Trade Commission will conduct its Five-Year Review.
美国商务部进行的日落复审调查:2月1日,美国商务部开始对来自中国的金属镁和搪瓷厨具进行反倾销和反补贴日落复审调查。同时,美国国际贸易委员会也将进行相应案件的日落复审调查。
 
Results Announced in Polyester Staple Fiber Review: DOC has concluded its administrative review of the AD order on certain polyester staple fiber from China. DOC determined that Zhaoqing Tifo New Fibre Co., Ltd. failed to establish its eligibility for a separate rate for the period of review, and that Takayasu Industrial Co., Ltd has no reviewable entries.
美国商务部对华聚酯短纤作出反倾销行政复审终裁:美国商务部对华聚酯短纤作出反倾销行政复审终裁,肇庆天富新合纤有限公司(Zhaoqing Tifo New Fibre Co., Ltd.)未能符合单独税率企业要求;另外,Takayasu Industrial Co., Ltd在调查期内无可审查交易。
 
Final Determination in ITC Carbon Brick Review: The U.S. International Trade Commission (“ITC”) announced on January 27 that it will not revoke the current AD and CVD orders on certain magnesia carbon bricks from China and Mexico on the grounds that such a revocation would likely lead to “continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time”.
美国国际贸易委员会对华镁碳砖作出反倾销和反补贴日落复审终裁:美国国际贸易委员会于1月27日宣布,其不会撤销现存的对来自中国和墨西哥的镁碳砖的反倾销和反补贴措施,因为撤销现存的反倾销和反补贴措施将很可能在一个合理和可预见的时间里导致对美国产业的实质损害的继续和再发。
 
Preliminary Determination in Hydrofluorocarbon Blends and Components: On February 1st, DOC issued the preliminary determination of the AD investigation of Hydrofluorocarbon Blends and Components Thereof from China (POI: 10/1/2014-3/31/2015). The final determination is expected on June 15 of this year.
美国商务部对华氢氟烃制冷剂作出反倾销初裁:2月1日,美国商务部对华氢氟烃制冷剂作出反倾销初裁(调查期:2014年10月1日-2015年3月31日)。反倾销终裁将于2016年6月15日作出。
 
Amorphous Silica Fabric Investigation Instituted: As of January 26th, the ITC has commenced its AD and CVD investigations into imports of certain amorphous silica fabric from China, following a January 20th petition pertaining thereto. ITC’s preliminary determination is currently due by March 7th of this year.
美国国际贸易委员会对华非晶态二氧化硅织物启动反倾销和反补贴调查:1月26日,根据1月20日所提交的申请,美国国际贸易委员会对华非晶态二氧化硅织物启动反倾销和反补贴调查。美国国际贸易委员会将于3月7日前作出初裁。
 
Preliminary Results in Copper Pipe Sunset Review: DOC has preliminarily found that a revocation of the AD orders on seamless refined copper pipe and tube from China and Mexico would likely lead to the continuation of dumping at levels previously deemed unacceptable. . Final determination forthcoming.
美国商务部对华无缝精炼铜管材作出反倾销日落复审初裁:美国商务部在初裁中裁定,若取消对来自中国和墨西哥的无缝精炼铜管材的反倾销措施,涉案产品对美国国内产业的损害将会继续发生。即将作出终裁。
 
Final CVD Determination for Uncoated Paper: DOC has reached a final affirmative CVD determination, reporting that countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of certain uncoated paper from China (POI 1/1/2014-12/31-2014).
美国商务部对华非涂布纸反补贴终裁:美国商务部公布对华非涂布纸的反补贴终裁,裁定来自中国的非涂布纸的生产商和出口商被给予可适用反补贴措施的补贴(调查期:2014年1月日-2014年12月31日)。
 
Personnel Change at ITC Announced: Michael Anderson has been designated as the new Director, Office of Investigations at the United States International Trade Commission. Per the ITC’s announcement, Anderson will “direct the planning and conduct of the USITC’s import injury investigations under the antidumping and countervailing duty provisions of the Tariff Act of 1930, the global safeguard provisions of the Trade Act of 1974, and other import injury statutes.” Anderson brings substantial expertise and leadership experience to the position. He has served in the capacity of Acting Director of the USITC Office of Industries since March of 2015, as the Chief of the Advanced Technology and Machinery Division in the Office of Industries from 2005 to 2015, and in various capacities as an economist for the ITC from 1991 to 2005.
美国国际贸易委员会的人事变动:Michael Anderson被任命为美国国际贸易委员会调查办公室主任。根据美国国际贸易委员会的公告,Anderson将指导美国国际贸易委员会根据1930关税法关于反倾销和反补贴调查的相关规定、1974年贸易法关于保障措施的相关规定以及其他进口损害法规所进行的进口损害调查的计划和实施。Anderson带来大量的专业知识和领导经验。其自2015年3月以来担任美国国际贸易委员会工业办公室的代理主任、2005-2015年间担任工业办公室先进技术和机械部门的领导以及在1991-2005年间在美国国际贸易委员会作为经济学家供职于不同部门。
 
 
U.S. Court of International Trade
美国国际贸易法院
 
·                     The CIT issued a final judgment sustaining DOC’s final results of redetermination pertaining to the final results of the administrative review of the AD/CVD orders on tapered roller bearings from China (POR 2007-2008), with respect to Peer Bearing Company-Changshan. Following multiple remand orders by the CIT, specifically on the issues pertaining to the valuation and country of origin of the bearings, the CIT found the latest redetermination to be accurate.
美国国际贸易法院发布最终判决,支持美国商务部对来自圆锥滚子轴承反倾销行政复审(调查期:2007-2008年)重新作出的终裁,修改Peer Bearing Company-Changshan的反倾销税率。根据美国国际贸易法院发布的发回重审的决定,尤其是关于轴承的价值和原产地的问题,美国国际贸易法院认定美国商务部最新作出的决定是准确的。
 
 
四、U.S. Regulatory and Legislative Developments
美国规章和法律发展
 
U.S. to Sign TPP February 4, Difficult Path to Ratification: The U.S. and 11 partner economies will sign the Transpacific Partnership FTA in New Zealand on February 4. On the eve of the signing, President Obama met with the Republican leaders of the U.S. Congress, Speaker of the House Paul Ryan and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, but the meeting failed to secure their support for ratification of the deal this year. Senator McConnell views the agreement as a threat to Republicans running in the November elections, while Speaker Ryan does not believe there is broad vote support among the majority House Republicans. The TPP may not be implemented by the other signatory countries until both the U.S. and Japan ratify.
美国将于2月4日签署TPP,批准之路仍旧艰难:美国和其他11个跨太平洋伙伴关系经济体将于2月4日在新西兰签署跨太平洋伙伴关系协议(TPP)。在签署前夕,美国总统奥巴马与美国国会共和党领导人、众议院议长Paul Ryan及参议院多数党领导人Mitch McConnell会面,但是本次会面没能够取得他们对于在本年批准该协议的支持。参议员McConnell认为该协议将为共和党在11月大选中的一个威胁,而众议院议长不认为能够获得众议院共和党人的多事支持。TPP不能够在其他签署国中实施,直到美国和日本批准。
 
House Oversight Planning Features China and India: The House Ways and Means Committee, which shares legal jurisdiction over U.S. trade policy with the Senate Finance Committee, indicated in its annual planning “Views and Estimates” document that China and India present the most important trade “opportunities” among emerging markets worldwide, and that the House will pursue vigorous oversight over U.S. engagement with those economies. This will likely lead to additional political pressure regarding trade remedy enforcement, the question of China’s market status, and the negotiation of the BIT between the U.S. and China over the coming year.
美国众议院积极监督与中国和印度的交涉:美国众议院筹款委员会,其与参议院财政委员会共同拥有美国贸易政策的管辖权,在其年度计划关注和评估文件中指出,中国和印度在全球新兴市场中展现出最重要的贸易机会,众议院将对美国与这些经济体的交涉进行积极监督。这可能对接下来这一年的贸易救济执行、中国的市场经济地位问题和中美之间进行的双边投资谈判造成额外的政治压力。
 
 
五、World Trade Organization Developments
世界贸易组织的发展
 
China Secures Generous Tariff Phase-out Terms under ITA: China's final schedule of tariff commitments under the expanded WTO Information Technology Agreement (ITA), published January 28, indicates that Chinese negotiators secured the longest phase outs possible under the agreement for over half of the covered tariff lines. China secured either five or seven-year tariff phase outs for 266 tariff lines under the new ITA. Products covered by the seven-year phase out include medical devices, lenses and optical fibers. Five-year products include several related to semiconductor manufacture. The WTO stated that over 95 percent of global imports of the goods covered by the ITA will be duty free by the third year of implementation.
中国在ITA下获得很长的关税逐步废止条款:1月28日所公布的中国在扩大《WTO信息技术协定》(ITA)项下关税承诺的最终安排表明,中国的谈判者对于超过一半的关税税目获得最长的逐步取消时限。中国在ITA下获得266个关税税目五年或七年逐步废止的资格。七年逐步废止关税的产品包括医疗设备、透镜和光导纤维。五年逐步废止关税的产品包括多种与半导体制造相关的产品。WTO称,超过95%的ITA项下产品的全球进口将在协定实施第三年免除关税。
 
China Notifies WTO on Alleged Agricultural Subsidies: Pursuant to WTO dispute consultations initially sought by the United States in February of 2015 in which the U.S. challenged China’s “Demonstration Bases” program for alleged illegal subsidies, China notified the WTO on February 1st that that it did not maintain or introduce any export subsidies on agricultural products during the years 2013 and 2014.
中国就其被指控的农业补贴通知WTO:根据美国于2015年2月提出的WTO争端磋商,指控中国的示范基地项目是不符合WTO规则的补贴,中国于2月1日通知WTO中国在2013和2014年均未对农产品维持或采用任何出口补贴。
 
China and GCC Re-Launch FTA Negotiations: China and the six Middle Eastern countries comprising the Gulf Cooperation Council customs union announced on January 26 the restart of free trade negotiations after a 7 year hiatus. The parties intend to complete the regional FTA, which would be covered by Article XXIV of the GATT, by the end of 2016. China and the GCC had originally pursued negotiations from 2004-2009, reaching no conclusion.
中国与海湾合作委员会重启自由贸易协定谈判:中国和六个中东国家组成的海湾合作委员会关税同盟于1月26日宣布重启自由贸易协定谈判。各方打算在2016年年底前完成区域性自由贸易协定,区域性自由贸易协定由GATT第24条规定。中国与海湾合作委员会在2004-2009年间曾进行相关谈判,但是没有达成协定。
 
 
六、Think Tanks and Research
智囊机构和研究
 
Academic Study Links Major Chinese Banks to Counterfeiting Scam:  An 18 month study from the computer science faculty at New York University has identified major state-owned Chinese banks as the nexus of online payments processing for the illicit global Internet market for counterfeit luxury goods. According to the study, the Bank of China, the Bank of Communications, and Agricultural Bank of China handled payments for 97 percent of counterfeit purchases covered by the study. These banks remain the subject of litigation involving luxury brand-owners, including Gucci, and credit card companies, such as Visa.
学术研究指出中国主要的银行卷入假冒奢侈品交易:纽约大学计算机科学系18个月的研究表明,中国主要的国有银行为全球假冒奢侈品牌商品网购提供线上支付渠道。根据该研究,有97%的假冒商品购买是由中国银行、交通银行和中国农业银行处理的。这三家银行都被奢侈品品牌(例如古琦)和信用卡公司(例如Visa)控告。

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