中美贸易救济简报(2016.5.18)
2016-06-28 15:36:36   来源:   评论:0 点击:

中国贸促会经贸摩擦海外常年法律顾问(美国)
 
CCPIT U.S.-China Trade Remedies Briefing
中美贸易救济简报
 
2016年5月18日
 
美国奥斯顿律师事务所  北京市高朋律师事务所
 
 
 
简报摘要:本期简报包括五个部分。第一部分为美国钢铁业针对中国钢铁的进口所采取的各项行动;第二部分为反倾销和反补贴调查的最新立案情况、最近案件进展情况和最近所出的裁决结果;第三部分为反倾销和反补贴行政复审调查2016年5月可以进行复审立案申请的案件、已立案的案件和最近所出的裁决结果;第四部分为反倾销和反补贴日落复审调查的最新立案情况;第五部分为最新的贸易救济方面的新闻,主要内容是美国国会钢铁联线针对中国经济地位和贸易救济政策的行动以及美国钢铁业对中国钢铁产品所提起的337调查申请可能面临的困境。
 

 
U.S. Moving on Multiple Fronts Regarding Chinese Steel

美国对中国钢铁展开多条战线

 
The situation regarding steel overcapacity and imports of Chinese steel is rapidly gaining momentum as a significant political and legal issue in Washington. Most recently, US Steel has taken a unique approach to the issue by filing a complaint under Section 337 seeking a full prohibition on Chinese alloy and carbon steel imports based on alleged unfair acts. This case has yet to be instituted, and the Obama Administration has expressed some initial concerns with the arguments offered by US Steel. The 337 filing, which we discuss further below, and other efforts on both anti-dumping and subsidy cases position the industry strongly to negotiate with the Obama Administration for the initiation of a Section 201 global safeguard against all steel imports.   It is important to understand the recent legal filings on Chinese imports in the context of how the US steel industry and its champions in Congress are engaged in a major political effort against steel imports, targeting principally those imports from China.
钢铁生产能力过剩和中国钢铁的进口已经迅速成为一个重要的政治和法律问题在华盛顿展开。最近,美国钢铁业采取了一种不同寻常的方法来应对该问题,其依据337条款提起申请,指控中国出口商/生产商涉嫌不公平行为,从而要求全面停止进口中国的合金钢和碳钢。此案目前尚未立案,奥巴马政府对美国钢铁业提供的证据提出了一些初步问题。我们将在下文进一步讨论的337调查申请,以及其他反倾销和反补贴案件的工作,强有力地推动了美国钢铁产业和奥巴马政府关于对所有进口钢铁启动201条款的全球性保障措施进行协商。美国钢铁业及其在国会的维护者正致力于对钢铁的进口进行政治活动,在此背景下才能理解近期主要针对来自中国的进口产品所进行的法律行动。
 
There are the following activities all being done in a coordinated fashion:
以下针对进口钢铁的行动互相协调进行:
 
·           Broad demands by industry, unions and trade associations for a global safeguard on steel imports (Section 201);
   行业,工会,行业协会提出的对进口钢铁启动全球性保障措施(201条款)的广泛诉求;
·           The new 337 filing by US Steel;
   美国钢铁业新提出的337申请;
·           A number of dumping and subsidy petitions threatened;
   即将到来的大量倾销和补贴申请;
·           Hearings held by USTR to respond to industry pressure on global steel overcapacity, with China as the primary target of complaints;
   美国贸易代表署为回应全球钢铁生产能力过剩的行业压力,以中国为主要申诉目标而举办的听证会;
·           The Congressional Steel Caucus working on legislation regarding China’s currency, and on legislation that would prevent China from getting “Market Economy” status at the WTO by the end of the year unless steel overcapacity is addressed to the satisfaction of US industry;
   国会钢铁联线对中国货币、以及阻止中国在年底WTO中得到市场经济地位(除非美国工业对钢铁生产能力过剩的问题感到满意)的立法工作;
·           Last week, the Congressional Steel Caucus also wrote Obama demanding a meeting to discuss Chinese steel (discussed in detail, below);
   上周,国会钢铁联线还向奥巴马提请了一个讨论中国钢铁的会议(讨论详细的信息见下);
·           On May 16th a 522% combined AD/CVD duty was placed on Chinese imports of cold- rolled steel after final determinations (266% antidumping duty and 256% anti-subsidy duty).
   5月16日,对来自中国的冷轧钢材作出反倾销和反补贴税率合计为522%的终裁(反倾销税率为266%,反补贴税率为256%)。
 
This is an election year, which is another vital factor to consider. The Democratic Party has traditionally been the most protectionist of the US political parties, and on steel, Democrats seeking re-election in Congress will not want to be outflanked on trade policy by Republicans who charge that not enough is being done on Chinese steel. These same Democrats are likely to realize that the initiation of a global steel safeguard by the Obama Administration will likely generate the most votes for Democratic candidates in November. A safeguard would allow the Administration to heavily target Chinese steel while making accommodation for allied trade partners like Japan and Korea. We note that the Bush Administration pursued just such a safeguard policy in 2001 as a means of winning votes in key industrial states in the “mid-term” Congressional elections of 2002.
今年是大选年,这是另一个需要考虑的重要因素。民主党一直是美国政党中最支持贸易保护主义的。钢铁方面,在国会改选中,民主党不会希望在贸易政策上输给指责对中国钢铁做得还不够的共和党。这些有同样想法的民主党派人士,很可能意识到奥巴马政府启动的对钢铁全球性保障措施会在11月给民主党候选人带来最多的选票。保障措施可以让政府把中国钢铁作为主要攻击对象,并且可以紧密联合像日本、韩国这样的贸易伙伴。我们注意到布什政府就是在2001年推行这种保障措施政策,以此作为在2002年国会选举中期赢得主要工业州选票的方法。
 

 

Investigations

调查

 

New:

最新贸易救济调查:
 
AD/CVD Investigation on Carbon and Alloy Steel CTL Pipe: The Department of Commerce (DOC) is initiating a antidumping (AD) and countervailing duties (CVD) investigations into imports of certain carbon and alloy steel cut-to-length pipe from China (A-570-047, C-570-048). The petitioners are Arcelor Mittal USA LLC, Nucor Corporation, and SSAB Enterprises, LLC. The period of investigation is all of 2015
 
      针对碳钢和合金钢定尺板的反倾销/反补贴调查:美国商务部正在对来自中国的碳钢和合金钢定尺板启动一项反倾销和反补贴调查(相关案件编号:A-570-047, C-570-048)。申请人为Arcelor Mittal USA LLC,Nucor Corporation和SSAB Enterprises, LLC。调查期为2015年全年。
 
337 Complaint on Electrical Conductor Composite Cores: The International Trade Commission (ITC) has announced the filing of a complaint by CTC Global Corporation against Shenzhen Zm Hesheng Power Development Co., Ltd., over the production of certain electrical conductor composite cores and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims two US patents. The complainant requests that the Commission institute an investigation and, after the investigation, issue a general exclusion order, or in the alternative a limited exclusion order, and cease and desist orders. (337-TA-995)
 
      针对电导体复合磁芯的337申请:美国国际贸易委员会宣布CTC Global Corporation对深圳中美合盛电力发展有限公司的电导体复合磁芯及其元件提出申请,指控其侵犯了美国两项专利权。申请人要求美国国际贸易委员会展开调查,并且在调查后发出全面排除令或限制排除令,以及停止令。(相关案件编号:337-TA-995)
 
 
337 Complaint on Composite Aerogel Insulation Materials: The ITC has announced the filing of a complaint against Chinese respondents Nano Tech Co. Ltd. and Guangdong Alison Hi-Tech Co., Ltd for the importation into the United States, the sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain composite aerogel insulation materials and methods for manufacturing the same. The Petitioner, Aspen Aerogels, Inc. is seeking a general exclusion order, cease and desist orders and the imposition of a bond upon respondents' alleged infringing articles during the 60-day Presidential review period pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337.
 
       针对气凝胶隔热复合材料的337申请:美国国际贸易委员会宣布,相关申请人对中国纳诺科技有限公司和广东埃力生高新科技有限公司的进口到美国、进口销售及在美销售的气凝胶隔热复合材料及其制造工艺提出337调查申请。申请人Aspen Aerogels, Inc.请求对涉案产品发布全面排除令和停止令,并在60天的总统复查期间,依据《美国法典》第19编第1337节规定征收其侵权性物品的费用。
 
337 Complaint on Portable Electronic Devices: The ITC has filing of a complaint by Creative labs, Inc of California and Creative Technology Ltd. of Singapore against a multitude of companies, including Lenovo Group and ZTE Corp. of China, alleging 337 violations based upon the importation into the United States, the sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain portable electronic devices and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of a US patent. (337-TA-994)
 
针对便携式电子设备产品的337申请:美国国际贸易委员会收到Creative labs, Inc of California和Creative Technology Ltd. of Singapore对包括中国联想集团、中兴通讯股份有限公司在内的许多公司提出申请,指控其美国进口、进口销售及在美销售的便携式电子设备产品及其部件侵犯了美国一项专利权,违反337条款。(相关案件编号:337-TA-994)
 

Status Updates:

案件最新情况:

 
Large Residential Washers: The DOC has announced the postponement of its preliminary determination in its antidumping duties investigation of large residential washers from China. Petitioner Whirlpool Corporation made a timely request for a 50-day postponement of the preliminary determination, until 7/19/16. (A-570-033)
 
家用大型洗衣机案:美国商务部发布延迟对来自中国的家用大型洗衣机反倾销调查进行初裁的公告。申请人Whirlpool Corporation及时申请对该案的初裁延迟50天至2016年7月19日。(相关案件编号:A-570-033)
 

Results:

调查结果:

 
Cold-Rolled Steel Flat Products: The DOC has announced final determinations in its AD and CVD investigations into cold-rolled steel flat products from China, announcing a 266% antidumping duty and 256% anti-subsidy duty. (A-570-029, C-570-030)
 
冷轧扁钢产品案:美国商务部发布对来自中国的冷轧扁钢产品反倾销和反补贴调查终裁,裁定反倾销税为266%,反补贴税为256%。(相关案件编号:A-570-029, C-570-030)
 
AD/CVD Order on Polyethylene Terephthalate Resin: The DOC has announced that it will issue countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain polyethylene terephthalate resin from China, after affirmative final determination from itself and the ITC. (A-570-024, C-570-025)
 
聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯树脂反倾销和反补贴征税令:美国商务部与美国国际贸易委员会对来自中国的聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯树脂作出肯定性终裁后,商务部发布对该产品的反倾销和反补贴征税令。(相关案件编号:A-570-024, C-570-025)
 
Settlement Reached on Touchscreen Controllers: The ITC has announced the brokering of a settlement and the subsequent termination of investigation 337-TA-957, a complaint by Synaptics Inc. of Californian alleging patent infringement against Shenzhen Hiuding Technology Co., Ltd. a/k/a Shenzhen Goodix Technology Co. Ltd., of Shenzhen, China and Goodix Technology Inc. of San Diego, California, as well as BLU Products, Inc. of Doral, Florida. The ITC has affirmed the judge’s decision to terminate the investigation.
 
触控屏控制器案结案:美国国际贸易委员会宣布终止对案件337-TA-957的调查,Synaptics Inc. of Californian提起诉讼,起诉深圳市灰度科技有限公司(Shenzhen Hiuding Technology Co., Ltd.)又名深圳市汇顶科技股份有限公司(Shenzhen Goodix Technology Co. Ltd.)、加州圣地亚哥汇顶科技有限公司(Goodix Technology Inc.)及BLU Products, Inc. of Doral, Florida侵犯专利权。美国国际贸易委员会认可法官的判决,终止调查。
 
 

Reviews

行政复审调查

Opportunity to Request:

复审申请:

 
Beginning 5/1/2016 and ending 5/31/26 the following investigations involving AD/CVD orders on Chinese products will be eligible for administrative review:
 
2016年5月1日至2016年5月31日期间,针对以下中国产品实施的反倾销或反补贴措施可以进行行政复审调查申请:
 
(AD)
反倾销
·    Aluminum Extrusions, A-570-967
   铝型材,A-570-967
·    Citric Acid and Citrate Salt, A-570-937
   柠檬酸和柠檬酸盐,A-570-937
·    Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe, A-570-935
   圆形焊接碳钢线管,A-570-935
·    Iron Construction Castings, A-570-502
   铁制建筑铸件,A-570-502
·    Oil Country Tubular Goods, A-570-943
   石油专用管材,A-570-943
·    Pure Magnesium, A-570-832
   纯镁,A-570-832
·    Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents, A-570-972
   二苯乙烯光学增白剂,A-570-972
 
 
(CVD)
反补贴
·    Aluminum Extrusions, C-570-968
   铝型材,C-570-968
·    Citric Acid and Citrate Salt, C-570-938
   柠檬酸和柠檬酸盐,C-570-938
 
 
In addition, the following administrative reviews involving products from China with February 2015 request deadlines were requested and subsequently initiated:
 
此外,对以下来自中国的产品所进行的行政复审调查已经正式立案:
 
(AD)
反倾销
·    Glycine, A-570-836
   甘氨酸,A-570-836
 
(CVD)
反补贴
·    N/A
   无
 

Results:

调查结果:

 
Certain Steel Threaded Rod: The DOC announced the preliminary results of their administrative review of the AD order on certain steel threaded rod from China (A-570-932). Of the two respondents for individual review, Zhejiang New Oriental Fastener Co., Ltd. was determined to have sold merchandise in the US at prices below normal value, and RMB/IFI Group did not. Duties will be set if the preliminary results stand after the final determination.
 
钢制螺杆案:美国商务部发布对来自中国的钢制螺杆反倾销征税令行政复审的初步结果(相关案件编号:A-570-932)。经过对两个应诉方的分别审查,裁定浙江新东方紧固件有限公司在美销售的商品价格低于正常价值,摩根紧固件有限公司则不存在此种情况。最终反倾销税将在终裁时确定。
 
Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks: The DOC announced the preliminary results of their administrative review of the AD order on drawn stainless steel sinks from China (A-570-983). They found that one respondent, Guangdong Dongyuan Kitchenware Industrial Co., Ltd., made sales of the subject merchandise in the United States at prices below normal value. The other mandatory respondents, B&R Industries Limited, Zhongshan Newecan Enterprise Development Corporation, and Zhongshan Superte Kitchenware Co., Ltd./Superte invoiced as Foshan Zhaoshun Trade Co., Ltd., are part of the PRC-wide entity and will receive the rate of that entity. The department preliminarily granted separate rates to Feidong Import and Export Co., Ltd. and Ningbo Afa Kitchen and Bath Co., Ltd., and finally ruled the Shenzhen Kehuaxing Industrial Ltd made no shipments to the US during the period of review. Results subject to final determination.
 
拉制不锈钢水槽案:美国商务部发布对来自中国的拉制不锈钢水槽反倾销征税令行政复审的初步结果(相关案件编号:A-570-983)。经查,广东省东原厨具实业有限公司在美销售的涉案商品价格低于正常价值。其他强制应诉方B&R Industries Limited、中山市新惠景企业发展有限公司、中山市舒美特厨具有限公司(舒美特所开发票抬头为佛山市兆顺贸易有限公司)获得全国统一税率。商务部初步给予安徽省肥东县进出口有限公司、宁波阿发厨具有限公司单独税率,并最终裁定Shenzhen Kehuaxing Industrial Ltd.在审查期内无可审查交易。最终结果以终裁为准。
 
Frozen Warmwater Shrimp: The department is rescinding the administrative review of the Ad order on certain frozen Warmwater shrimp from China (A-570-893)
 
冷冻暖水虾案:美国商务部撤回对来自中国的冷冻暖水虾反倾销征税令行政复审(相关案件编号:A-570-893)
 
 

Sunset and Five-Year Reviews

日落复审调查

 

Commencing:

开始复审的案件:

 
The following sunset reviews are scheduled for initiation in June 2016:
 
以下日落复审调查将于2016年6月开始:
 
 
(AD)
反倾销
 
·    Cased Pencils from China (A-570-827) (4th Review)
                   来自中国的铅笔,A-570-827,第四次复审
·    Paper Clips from China (A-570-826) (4th Review)
来自中国的曲别针,A-570-826,第四次复审
 
 

Other News of Note:

其他新闻:

 
The Congressional Steel Caucus is seeking a meeting with President Obama to discuss the importance of maintaining China’s non-market status and enforcing the stricter trade laws that were put into place earlier this year in the Trade Facilitation & Trade Enforcement Act. Caucus chairman Tim Murphy (R-PA) and Vice Chairman Peter Visclosky (D-IN) wrote in a letter to Obama that his administration and congress must work “to ensure that the interpretation and enforcement of our trade laws are carried out to the fullest extent to ensure American steel producers receive swift trade relief before they are pushed to the brink of bankruptcy.” They assert that recognition of China as a market economy by the WTO would devastate the US steel industry and could cost over 600,000 job losses in this sector. This letter comes at the same time as a joint statement by ten steel industry groups representing producers in North and South America, the European Union and Turkey urged China to more “constructively participate” in OECD discussion on global steel overcapacity. US and Chinese officials met for a dialogue on steel overproduction on May 11-12th.
 
美国国会钢铁联线希望和奥巴马总统进行一次会议,讨论维持中国非市场经济地位和实行今年早些时候在《贸易便利和执法法》中提出的更严格的贸易法的重要性。钢铁联线的主席Tim Murphy (R-PA) 和副主席Peter Visclosky (D-IN) 致信奥巴马,称政府和国会必须要做好工作,“以确保贸易法的实施在最大程度上保证美国钢铁生产商在被推向破产边缘前,得到迅速的贸易救济。”他们坚持认为WTO对中国市场经济地位的认定,会毁灭美国钢铁业并且造成钢铁业六十万人失业。此封信件与一封联合声明一同送出,该联合声明由10个代表美国北部和南部生产商的钢铁行业团体,欧盟和土耳其作出,督促中国更加积极参与到经合组织关于全球钢铁生产能力过剩的讨论中。5月11日到12日,美国和中国官员就钢铁生产能力过剩进行对话。
 
The Section 337 Petition filed against Chinese steel producers may face roadblocks in the form of international obligations and domestic laws. Per Inside U.S. Trade, the ITC is obligated to notify the Department of Commerce if a petition involves dumping and/or subsidies. There are other parts to US Steel’s 337 petition, but if the ITC finds the other accusation invalid it could either terminate the investigation or refer the AD/CVD issues to the DOC. In terms of international obligations, the WTO’s Article XI in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade bans outright prohibitions on imports or exports, barring certain exceptions. If a ban were recommended by the ITC, the Government of China would have potential grounds to challenge the ruling as a GATT Article XI:1 violation. This could put the U.S. in the difficult position of defending its measure under GATT Article XX(d), as "necessary to secure compliance with laws or regulations which are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement"
 
对中国钢铁生产商的337调查申请,可能会因国际义务和国内法受阻。依照《美国国内贸易法》,如果申请人还涉及反倾销和/或反补贴调查,美国国际贸易委员会应当通知美国商务部。美国钢铁业所提出的337申请还有其他部分,如果美国国际贸易委员会发现其他控告无效,可以选择终止调查或将倾销/补贴争议移交商务部。依照国际义务,WTO关税及贸易总协定第十条禁止对进出口的全面禁止,另有规定的除外。如果美国国际贸易委员会推行禁止令,中国政府有理由指控该禁止令违反关税及贸易总协定第十条第一款的规定。这将使美国面临为其所实施的措施进行符合关税及贸易总协定第二十条第四款规定进行辩护的困境,需要证明该措施“为保证某些与本协定的规定并无抵触的法令或条例的贯彻执行所必需的措施”。

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