2016年简报第二期
2016-05-25 15:06:51   来源:   评论:0 点击:

 中国贸促会经贸摩擦海外常年法律顾问(美国)2016年简报第二期  总第五期
 
2016年1月20日
 
美国奥斯顿律师事务所  北京市高朋律师事务所
 
 
简报摘要:本期简报包括五个部分。第一部分为中美贸易政策方面的最新新闻,主要概述美国总统选举辩论中关于中国贸易的言论、美国专家就习主席对沙特阿拉伯访问的目的及影响的看法;第二部分为中美贸易与经济方面的最新新闻,主要内容包括美中进行第24轮双边投资协定谈判、美国产业担忧不批准TPP的情况下会遭受来自中国的不平等竞争;第三部分为贸易救济和国际贸易领域的法律发展,主要介绍美国对中国正在调查的贸易救济案件的最新动态、美国申请人近期提起的337调查、美国申请人近期提起的贸易救济调查、美国国际贸易法院近期就美国对中国的贸易救济调查所进行的相关诉讼的立案;第四部分为美国法律发展,主要内容包括众议院筹款委员会2016年首次听证会的召开时间和重要议题、美国贸易代表办公室计划于3月1日召开特别301听证会、美国贸易代表办公室和美国国际贸易委员会计划召开关于普遍优惠制改革的听证会及听证会的重要议题;第五部分为世界贸易组织方面的最新新闻,主要内容包括欧盟1月13日就中国市场经济地位所进行的辩论、1月23日WTO在达沃斯所举行的小型部长级会议可能的议题、巴西考虑就美国对大豆的补贴措施诉诸WTO争端解决机制。
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
一、U.S.- China Politics
中美贸易政策
 
China Trade Features in Presidential Debates: China has re-emerged in U.S. presidential politics as a threat to American economic welfare. Leading Republican candidate Donald Trump blasted the U.S. trade deficit with China during a Republican presidential debate on January 14. Mr. Trump claimed he would impose high, 45 percent tariffs on Chinese products. Competing candidates Senator Marco Rubio and former governor of Florida Jeb Bush rejected Trump’s position, arguing that such action by the U.S. would be illegal under international trade law, would cause China to retaliate against U.S. exports, and would ultimately harm the American consumer. As the nomination fight moves to the primary elections in all 50 states in February, anticipate that frictions with China over trade and currency policy will become more politicized by the candidates.
总统选举辩论中的中国贸易特征:中国作为对美国经济福利的威胁再次出现在美国总统政治中。共和党的主要候选人Donald Trump在1月14日的一个共和党总统选举辩论中猛烈攻击美国对中国的贸易逆差。Trump先生声称其将对中国产品征收45%的关税。与Trump先生竞争的候选人参议员Marco Rubio以及佛罗里达前州长Jeb Bush否定了Trump先生的主张,认为美国这样的举动是不符合国际贸易法的,将导致中国对美国的出口进行报复,并将最终对美国消费者造成损害。鉴于总统提名战将于2月在50州进行初步选举,可以预期美国与中国之间关于贸易和货币政策的摩擦将会被候选人更加政治化。
 
President Xi’s Saudi Travel Highlights Regional Competition: U.S. observers view President Xi Jinping’s travel to Saudi Arabia January 19 as a new exercise in Chinese diplomacy in the Middle East, as well as a critical effort by Beijing to balance its relations with Iran and Saudi Arabia. The entrance of Iranian crude oil on the international market is viewed as a threat to Saudi revenue, with China poised to benefit from export volumes from both countries. U.S. policy experts do not expect that Mr. Xi’s visit will yield any reduction in the rising tensions between Tehran and Riyadh over the civil wars in Syria or Yemen, or regarding how best to counter the advance of ISIS in the region.
习主席对沙特阿拉伯的访问强调区域性竞争:美国评论员认为习近平主席1月19日对沙特阿拉伯的访问是中国对中东外交的新实践,同时也是中国政府为了平衡其与伊朗、沙特阿拉伯之间关系的一个重要尝试。伊朗原油进入国际市场被认为是对沙特阿拉伯收入的威胁,中国从两个国家均进口,并从中受益。美国政策专家不认为习主席的访问将会减小伊朗和沙特阿拉伯之间因叙利亚和也门战争、或如何面对地区内的ISIS而形成的紧张局势。
 
 
二、U.S.-China Trade & Economics
中美贸易与经济
 
U.S.-China Hold 24th Round of BIT Negotiations: Meeting in Beijing January 17-26, U.S. and Chinese negotiators are holding the 24th round of negotiations toward a bilateral investment treaty (BIT). The U.S. side expected the work program of the round to be split between continued work on the agreement’s text and on continued development of a negative list of prohibited investments. China’s adoption of the negative list approach in 2015 marked the first time Beijing has taken such an approach in BIT negotiations. The U.S. State Department believes that the Chinese Government seeks to use the BIT as a driver of domestic economic and regulatory reforms, and that the Bit will continue to support the growth of Chinese FDI to the United States. China’s ongoing initiative to develop new screening methods for foreign investment has become a difficult issue in the talks, as has Beijing’s ambiguity toward its own offensive objectives in the U.S. market.
美中进行第24轮双边投资协定谈判:美国和中国的谈判者于2016年1月17-26日在北京进行第24轮双边投资协定谈判。美方认为本轮谈判可以分为两部分,一是继续就协议文本进行谈判,二是继续就禁止投资的负面清单进行谈判。中国在2015年采用负面清单方式是中国政府在双边投资协定谈判首次采用此种方式。美国国务院认为中国政府将双边投资协定作为国内经济和监管改革的动力,双边投资协定也会继续支持中国对美国的直接投资。鉴于中国对其在美国市场上攻击性目标的不明确态度,中国正在进行的建立对外投资的新的审查方法已经成为谈判中的一个难点。
 
U.S. Industry Fears Unequal Competition from China if TPP Not Ratified: Fearing trade diversion to China and other Asian countries from the U.S. should Congress fail to ratify the Trans-Pacific Partnership FTA the U.S. National Foreign Trade Coalition testified before the U.S. ITC calling for swift legislation to pass the trade agreement. NFTC stated that “Asian countries are actively negotiating tariff liberalization among themselves…[and] U.S. producers will face very substantial foreign competition benefitting from a margin of preference even if there is not tariff elimination within RCEP. TPP (and TPP as it is likely to be expanded) would correct this distortion with respect to the RCEP members with which the U.S. does not already have an FTA.”
美国产业担忧不批准TPP的情况下会遭受来自中国的不平等竞争:美国国家对外贸易联盟(NFTC)在美国国际贸易委员会要求快速通过跨太平洋伙伴关系协议(TPP),其表示,如果美国国会不批准跨太平洋伙伴关系协议,某些贸易恐怕会从美国转移到中国及其他亚洲国家。NFTC表示,亚洲国家之间正积极就其关税自由化进行谈判……美国生产商将面临大量的受益于关税优惠的外国竞争,尽管区域全面经济伙伴关系成员国之间没有消除关税。美国与区域全面经济伙伴关系成员国之间没有签订自由贸易协定,TPP是对区域全面经济伙伴关系成员国的正确应对。
 
 
三、Trade Remedies and Legal Developments in International Trade
贸易救济和国际贸易领域的法律发展
 
Uncoated Paper Case Draws Congressional Attention: Four members of Congress submitted written testimony on January 14 to the U.S. International Trade Commission (“USITC”) in the AD and CVD investigations of Certain Uncoated Paper from Australia, Brazil, China, Indonesia, and Portugal, Investigation Nos. 701-TA-528-529 and 731-TA-1264-1268. Senators Sessions (AL), Klobuchar (MN), Brown (OH) and Rep. Stefanik (NY) urged the ITC to apply AD and CVD duties on five countries, including China, to defend the U.S. paper industry from unfair foreign competition. According to Senator Sessions, “the data show that China, producing with a heavily subsidized industry, dumps these products into the United States market at 97-193 percent less than the market price in the U.S. Data on other counties also show a significant burden on U.S. producers, such as 41 percent for Australia, 33-42 percent for Brazil, 0 to 52 percent for Indonesia, and 30 percent for Portugal. The countervailing duty margins for China and Indonesia also showed the adverse levels of government subsidies. The figures were 43 to 131 percent for Indonesia and 6 to 126 percent for China, creating a double dumping and subsidy burden for U.S. producers by those nations.”
美国非涂布纸反倾销和反补贴调查引起国会关注:1月14日,四位国会议员向美国国际贸易委员会就美国对来自澳大利亚、巴西、中国、印度尼西亚、葡萄牙的非涂布纸进行的反倾销和反补贴调查提交书面证言(案件号:701-TA-528-529和731-TA-1264-1268)。参议员Sessions (AL)、 Klobuchar (MN)、Brown (OH)和Rep. Stefanik (NY)督促美国国际贸易委员会对来自五国的非涂布纸征收反倾销和反补贴税,以保护美国纸业免于不公平的外国竞争。根据参议员Sessions的证言,数据表明中国纸业在多项补贴下,向美国以低于97-193%市场价格的价格倾销被调查产品。其他国家的倾销幅度分别为澳大利亚41%、巴西33-42%、印度尼西亚0-52%和葡萄牙30%。中国和印度尼西亚的补贴幅度也表明政府补贴的不利影响。印度尼西亚43-131%的补贴幅度和中国6-126%的补贴幅度对美国生产商造成了倾销和补贴的双重负担。
 
MOFCOM Launches AD/CVD Case on Distiller’s Grains from U.S.: MOFCOM on January 12 announced the launch of an antidumping and countervailing duty investigation on imports of Distiller’s Dried Grains with or without solubles from the U.S. The product is classified at heading 2303.3000 under the Customs Tariff of Import & Export Commodities of PRC.
中国商务部对来自美国的干玉米酒糟启动反倾销和反补贴调查:中国商务部于1月12日对来自美国的无论是否含有可溶性蛋白物质的干玉米酒糟启动反倾销和反补贴调查。该产品归在《中华人民共和国进出口税则》:23033000。
 
Covidien Files 337 Request on Surgical Staplers: On January 8, Covidien filed a Section 337 complaint with the USITC seeking an exclusion order on imports of surgical staplers manufactured by Chongqing QMI Surgical Co. Ltd.  Comments are due January 22.
Covidien就外科缝合器提起337调查申请:1月8日,Covidien向美国国际贸易委员会提起337调查申请,要求对Chongqing QMI Surgical Co. Ltd.生产的外科缝合器颁布禁止进口令。评论的截止期限为1月22日。
 
Commerce Issues Partial Rescission of 7th Administrative Review of Steel Wire Garment Hangers from China: Following a request made on December 16, 2015 by petitioner M&B Metal Product Co., the U.S. Department of Commerce rescinded the 7th administrative review on steel wire garment hangers from China with respect to 44 Chinese companies. The review will continue for only two Chinese producers, Shanghai Wells Hanger Co. Ltd. and Hong Kong Wells Ltd.
美国商务部取消部分对华钢丝衣架的第七次反倾销行政复审调查:根据2015年12月16日申诉方M&B Metal Product Co.提出的申请,美国商务部决定取消对华钢丝衣架的第七次反倾销行政复审中所涉的44个中国公司的调查。该复审只对两个中国生产商Shanghai Wells Hanger Co. Ltd.和Hong Kong Wells Ltd.继续进行。
 
USITC Launches Preliminary AD/CVD Investigation on Pneumatic Tires: On January 11, the USITC announced the initiation of the preliminary phase of the AD and CVD investigation on pneumatic, off-road tires from China, India and Sri Lanka. (Investigation Nos. 701–TA–551–553 and731–TA–1307–1308).
美国国际贸易委员会对华OTR轮胎启动反倾销和反补贴初步调查:1月11日,美国国际贸易委员会对来自中国、印度和斯里兰卡的非公路用充气轮胎启动反倾销和反补贴初步调查。(案件号:701–TA–551–553和731–TA–1307–1308)
 
Commerce Postpones Preliminary Determination in CVD Case on Mechanical Transfer Drives: the U.S. Department of Commerce announced on January 15 the postponement of the preliminary determination in the CVD investigation of certain iron mechanical transfer drive components from China (C-570-031). Commerce cited the case as “extraordinarily complicated by reason of the number and complexity of the alleged countervailable subsidy practices involved.” The deadline for the preliminary determination has been extended from January 21, 2016 to March 28, 2016.
美国对华机械传输组件发布反补贴延期初裁公告: 2016年1月15日,美国商务部发布对华机械传输组件反补贴延期初裁公告(C-570-031)。美国商务部认为,由于涉案的补贴数量多且复杂,该案因而特别复杂。反补贴初裁的期限由2016年1月21日延至2016年3月28日。
 
Petitioner Files AD/CVD on Amorphous Silica Fabric from China: On January 19, 2016, Auburn Manufacturing, Inc. filed a petition with the U.S. Department of Commerce and USITC for the imposition of antidumping and countervailing duties on imports of certain amorphous silica fabric (“ASF”) from China. The scope of the case covers certain woven, industrial grade ASF, which contains a minimum of 90 percent silica by nominal weight, and a nominal width in excess of 8 inches. The product is typically used in industrial applications to insulate and resist extreme heat. The petition named over 80 Chinese manufacturers and trading companies that are believed to have produced and/or exported subject ASF to the United States.
申请人对来自中国的非晶态二氧化硅织物提起反倾销和反补贴调查:2016年1月19日,Auburn Manufacturing, Inc.向美国商务部和美国国际贸易委员会就来自中国的非晶态二氧化硅织物(“ASF”)提起反倾销和反补贴调查。本案的被调查产品的范围包括织物的、工业级别的ASF,其在名义重量上最少包含90%的二氧化硅,其名义宽度应超过8英寸。被调查产品用于工业上隔热和耐热。申请人指明80个中国生产商和贸易商涉及生产和向美国出口被调查产品。
 
U.S. Court of International Trade
美国国际贸易法院
 
·                     On January 12, 2016, Taizhou United Import and Export Co. Ltd. filed a case with the CIT challenging the final results of a CVD administrative review on aluminum extrusions from China. (#16-00009).
2016年1月12日,Taizhou United Import and Export Co. Ltd. 在美国国际贸易法院就美国商务部对华铝型材所作出的反补贴行政复审终裁提起诉讼。(#16-00009)
 
·                     On January 12, 2016, Yantai CMC Bearing Co. Ltd. filed a case with the CIT challenging the final results of an AD administrative review of tapered roller bearings from China. (#16-00011).
2016年1月12日,Yantai CMC Bearing Co. Ltd.在美国国际贸易法院就美国商务部对华圆锥滚子轴承所作出的反倾销行政复审终裁提起诉讼。(#16-00011)
 
·                     On January 12, 2016, Guangzhou Jangho Curtain Wall Engineering Systems Co. and its affiliates in Beijing, Hong Kong and Shanghai filed a case with the CIT challenging the results of a CVD administrative review of aluminum extrusions from China. (#16- 00012).
2016年1月12日,广州江河幕墙系统工程有限公司(Guangzhou Jangho Curtain Wall System Engineering Co., Ltd.)及其在北京、香港、上海的关联公司共同在美国国际贸易法院就美国商务部对华铝型材所作出的反补贴行政复审终裁提起诉讼。(#16-00012)
 
·                     On January 13, 2016, Archer Daniels Midland Company, Carfil, Inc. and Tate & Lyle Ingredients America filed a case with the CIT challenging the final results of an AD administrative review of citric acid from China. (#16-00014).
2016年1月13日,Archer Daniels Midland Company, Carfil, Inc. 和 Tate & Lyle Ingredients America在美国国际贸易法院就美国商务部对华柠檬酸所作出的反倾销行政复审终裁提起诉讼。(#16-00014)
 
 
四、U.S. Regulatory and Legislative Developments
美国规章和法律发展
 
Ways & Means Announces First Hearing of 2016, Trade, China, Expected on Agenda: Ways and Means Committee Chairman Kevin Brady (R-TX) announced January 19 that the Committee will hold its first hearing of the year on Tuesday, January 26th at 10:00 AM. The hearing will focus on reaching America’s potential through pro-growth policies that deliver opportunities for all Americans. Congressional expect trade policy, the unratified TPP free trade agreement, and growing trade frictions with China over currency and the protection of US intellectual property may be subjects of discussion at the hearing.  The initial hearing of the year is likely to set a broad agenda for economic legislation under the committee’s jurisdiction over tax and trade matters.
众议院筹款委员会2016年首次听证会,贸易、中国被列入议程:众议院筹款委员会主席Kevin Brady于1月19日宣布,众议院筹款委员会将于1月26日上午10:00召开本年度第一次听证会。本次听证会的重点是通过主张发展的政策来发掘美国的潜能,从而给所有的美国人带来机会。国会议员有望在听证会上就贸易政策、未批准的TPP自由贸易协定、与中国之间关于货币政策的贸易摩擦、以及保护美国知识产权进行讨论。本年度的首次听证会可能会在委员会的税收和贸易方面的管辖下制定经济立法的广泛议程。
 
USTR Sets Special 301 Hearing for March 1: USTR will hold its annual Special 301 hearing on foreign intellectual property practices on March 1. China is among 13 countries currently on the Special 301 Priority Watch List for problematic IPR practices. Foreign governments have until February 19 to file comments, while the deadline for public comments is February 5. The hearing will set the stage for the finalization of the Special 301 Report in April, and could trigger an escalation of U.S. policy actions toward countries with chronic problems regarding the protection of intellectual property. Early lobbying from industry indicates that India may be a primary focus during the hearing.
美国贸易代表办公室计划于3月1日召开特别301听证会:美国贸易代表办公室将于3月1日召开关于外国知识产权保护的年度特别301听证会。中国是现今的特别301重点观察名单中13个国家之一。外国政府可以在2月19日前提交评论,公开评论的提交期限为2月5日。听证会为将于4月发布的特别301报告打好基础,并且能够引发美国对于知识产权保护长期存在问题的国家所制定政策的升级。来自产业的早期游说表明印度可能是听证会上的重点。
 
USTR and USITC Announce Hearing on Reform to Generalized System of Preferences: responding to a request from the U.S. Trade Representative, the USITC will hold a hearing on February 24, 2016 to explore three possible reforms of the U.S. GSP. The hearing will cover the probable economic impacts of a) elimination of U.S. import duties on certain articles from all beneficiary developing countries under the GSP program; b) of elimination of U.S. import duties on certain handbags and travel goods products for least-developed beneficiary developing countries (LDBDCs) and certain African Growth and Opportunity (AGOA) countries; and c) of removal of certain articles from India, Indonesia and Brazil from eligibility for duty-free treatment. Requests to appear at the hearing are due February 1, and the deadline for pre-hearing briefs is February 3.
美国贸易代表办公室和美国国际贸易委员会宣布召开关于普遍优惠制改革的听证会:作为对美国贸易代表所提申请的回应,美国国际贸易委员会将于2016年2月24日召开听证会,以探究美国普遍优惠制的三个可能的改革。听证会可能包括以下几方面的经济影响:a)在普遍优惠制下免除来自所有受惠的发展中国家的某些产品的美国进口关税;b)免除来自受惠的最不发达国家和非洲增长与机会国家的手提包和旅行产品的美国进口关税;c)消除对来自印度、印度尼西亚和巴西的某些产品的免关税待遇。申请出席听证会的期限是2月1日,提交听证会前摘要的期限是2月3日。
 
 
五、World Trade Organization Developments
世界贸易组织的发展
 
EU Debates China’s NME Status: The European Commission held on January 13 an initial “orientation debate” regarding whether or not to grant China “market economy status”. The Commission stated in its briefing to the public that “there is no common WTO definition of "Market Economy Status". How a Member grants this status to any given country depends on the Member's own internal rules and procedures. This also applies to the EU.” This position sets the stage for months of debate and information gathering by the EU, which has pledged to work with other WTO members to arrive at a common position on China’s market status in 2016.
欧盟就中国市场经济地位的辩论:欧盟于1月13日召开首期“方向辩论”,讨论是否给中国市场经济地位。欧盟在其对外发布的摘要中表示,WTO法规上没有市场经济地位的普遍定义,一成员方如何给另一成员方市场经济地位应当依据该成员方自己内部的规则和程序,这同样适用于欧盟。该辩论观点为多月的辩论及欧盟搜集的信息打好基础,欧盟已经承诺与WTO成员方在2016年就中国市场经济地位达成一致立场。
 
Davos Mini-Ministerial January 23: WTO ministers from 20 countries, including the U.S. and EU, will take part in an informal WTO ministerial gathering at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, January 23. Ministers are expected to work toward a common agenda for 2016, but the divide that emerged during the Nairobi Ministerial in December are likely to delay progress. WTO negotiators will also meet at Davos regarding the ongoing WTO Trade in Services Agreement (TISA), where continued dialogue regarding treatment of state-owned enterprises is expected to feature on the agenda.
1月23日达沃斯小型部长级会议:来自20国(包括美国和欧盟)的WTO部长们将于1月23日在世界经济论坛年会的召开地瑞士达沃斯参加一个非正式WTO部长级会议。部长们有望致力于制定2016年议程,但是12月内罗毕部长级会议上产生的分歧可能会进度的迟延。WTO谈判方也将在达沃斯聚会,就正在进行的WTO服务贸易协定进行谈判,关于国有企业待遇的问题也有望在议程中突出。
 
Brazil Considers WTO Challenge of US Subsidies for Soybeans: The association for Brazil’s soybean industry, Aprosoja, has approached the Brazilian Government regarding the potential for a WTO dispute case regarding subsidies provided to U.S. soybean growers by crop insurance, revenue and price-based programs available under the 2014 farm bill.
巴西考虑就美国对大豆的补贴措施诉诸WTO争端解决机制:巴西的大豆产业协会Aprosoja已经在与巴西政府商谈就美国向大豆生产者通过2014年农业法案项下的农作物保险、收入和基于价格的项目提供补贴诉诸WTO争端解决机制。
 

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