2016年简报第一期
2016-06-28 15:29:03   来源:   评论:0 点击:

中国贸促会经贸摩擦海外常年法律顾问(美国)2016年简报第一期  总第四期
 
2016年1月6日
 
美国奥斯顿律师事务所  北京市高朋律师事务所
 
 
简报摘要:本期简报包括五个部分。第一部分为中美贸易政策方面的最新新闻,主要概述新一年中美关系可能存在的冲突点以及奥巴马政府可能会试图将冲突降至最少;第二部分为中美贸易与经济方面的最新新闻,主要内容包括关于中国市场经济地位的政治辩论、美国财政部海外资产控制办公室所发布的初步网络制裁指南及其重要规定;第三部分为贸易救济和国际贸易领域的法律发展,主要介绍美国对中国正在调查的贸易救济案件的最新动态、美国ITC近期立案的反倾销日落复审调查、美国商务部公布的2016年1月可以申请行政复审的反倾销或反补贴调查、美国国际贸易法院就美国对中国的贸易救济调查所进行的相关诉讼的立案和裁决;第四部分为美国法律发展,主要内容包括网络税收政策和中国货币政策方面的讨论推迟关税执行法案在参议院的通过、TPP可能难以在2016年获得美国国会的批准、制定降低跨国公司税负相关法律的可能;第五部分为世界贸易组织方面的最新新闻,主要内容包括日本申请加入中美国产飞机优惠税收措施案磋商程序、中国要求WTO成员国于2016年结束中国的非市场经济地位待遇。
 
 

 
一、U.S.- China Politics
中美贸易政策
 
The Year Ahead for China-US Relations, Minimizing Conflict in Midst of Competition: The Obama White House enters the final year of the administration at a time when China and the US remain engaged in both regional and global competition. The Obama team is likely to seek to avoid potential conflicts with Beijing without sacrificing major US principles, in particular the guarantee of freedom of navigation of the seas in Asia and the pursuit of rules-based free trade and investment worldwide.
新一年中美关系,将竞争中的冲突减至最少:在中美处于地区性和全球性的竞争之中时,奥巴马政府进入其执政的最后一年。奥巴马政府很可能在不牺牲重大的美国原则的前提下,尤其是保证在亚洲海域的自由航行权以及追求基于规则的全球自由贸易和投资,尽量避免与中国政府的潜在冲突。
 
Several problematic issues may serve as potential flashpoints in the bilateral relationship, and Washington will pursue pragmatic diplomacy to preserve stability in Asia and to promote growth in the global economy. The Obama Administration cautiously approves of continued rapprochement between China and Taiwan, but is concerned that Taiwan’s elections this year may raise tensions both across the straits and between Washington and Beijing. US presidential campaigns will certainly seizes on the Taiwan elections as a basis for criticism of China. As the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) begins to scale up operations this year, the Obama Administration has already proposed sharing greater voting rights and power with Asian economies, including China, at the IMF and World Bank. This diplomatic effort will be offset by a high degree of scrutiny of AIIB investments for signs of political influence.
一些悬而未决的问题可能成为中美双边关系中潜在的冲突点,美国政府追求务实外交,以保护亚洲的稳定,并促进全球经济的增长。奥巴马政府谨慎地赞成大陆与台湾之间关系的不断友好,但是仍然担心台湾今年的大选不仅会导致海峡两岸的关系紧张,还会导致中美关系紧张。美国总统竞选一定会将台湾大选作为基础来批评中国。鉴于亚洲基础设施投资银行(AIIB)于今年开始扩大运营,奥巴马政府已经建议与亚洲经济体(包括中国)在国际货币基金组织和世界银行分享更多的投票权。此项外交举动将会由于政治影响而为亚洲基础设施投资银行投资的高度审查所抵消。
 
The security sphere remains the most troubling source of friction between the US and China. The US has met continued Chinese development of bases in the South China Sea with more freedom of navigation exercises. Beijing’s building of a second aircraft carrier for the PLAN will continue to raise the stakes in the region, even as Beijing has tempered its response to US arms sales to Taiwan in late 2015. A new wrinkle for the Sino-US relationship is the continuation of the new ties fostered by the leaders of China and Russia over the past two years. Most US analysts tend to view the Beijing-Moscow axis as an economic relationship decidedly in favor of China, but new developments in Sino-Russian military cooperation, particularly in Central Asia and on the high seas, would likely appear to Washington as an initiative aimed to counter balance Washington’s “Asia pivot”. As we head into this US election year, these diverse challenges will confront governments in both Beijing and Washington, and could at any time spill over into the vibrant bilateral commercial relationship,
安全领域仍是产生中美摩擦最麻烦的领域。美国面临着中国在南海领域不断建造基地与美国行使航海自由权的冲突。中国政府建造第二艘航空母舰将继续在该区域增强力量,正如中国政府强烈回应美国在2015年末对台销售武器。中美关系的一个新难题就是中俄领导人在过去两年内形成的新纽带。大多数美国分析家认为中俄政府轴线是对中国有利的经济关系,但是中俄军事合作的新发展,尤其是在中亚和公海方面的,将很可能成为美国政府重返亚洲的动力。进入美国总统选举年度,中国和美国政府都将面临这些多样化的挑战,这些挑战可能在双边商业关系中随时出现。
 
 
二、U.S.-China Trade & Economics
中美贸易与经济
 
Political Debate over Status of China’s Economy: The debate among WTO members regarding China’s is rapidly becoming a highly politicized issue, and this is certainly the case in Washington. The US Department of Commerce has already indicated its interpretation of China’s WTO Accession protocols allows only for case by case analyses of whether market conditions prevail for any single Chinese industry. The US Congress supports the Obama Administration on this point. Legislators cite the size of the US trade deficit in conjunction with allegations over China’s currency policy as evidence that China’s economy remains something different than a fully free market. Anticipate these arguments to increase in number and volume during this presidential election year in the United States, and to result in multiple legislative efforts to address the imbalance in US-China trade.
中国经济地位的政治辩论:WTO成员方关于中国经济地位的讨论迅速地成为一个高度政治化的问题,在华盛顿也是一样。美国商务部表示其对于中国入世协定书的解释是,该协定书允许逐案审查中国的单个行业是否为市场经济条件。美国国会在这一点上支持奥巴马政府。立法者援引美国贸易赤字和中国货币政策主张作为中国经济仍不同于全面自由市场的证据。可以预测,在接下来的美国总统选举年中,这洋的主张会不断增多,并可能导致采用各种立法手段以解决中美贸易不平衡的问题。
 
US Publishes Initial Cyber Sanctions Guidelines: The US Treasury Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) published on December 31 new, abbreviated regulations implementing the Cyber- crimes and cyber terrorism (CYBER) sanctions created by executive order in April of 2015. The CYBER sanctions program will designate entities and persons identified as having engaged in cybercrime or cyberterrorism as Specially Designated Nationals (SDNs). US persons will be prohibited from engaging in any transactions with SDNs and assets or property held by such SDNs in the US would be frozen. The regulations also allow the US to levy sanctions against persons worldwide who provide financial, material or technological support to cyber SDNs. The cyber sanctions were developed in large part in response to alleged large scale commercial espionage by various North Korean, Chinese, Russian and Iranian entities in 2014-2015.
美国发布初步网络制裁指南:美国财政部海外资产控制办公室于12月31日发布一个新的且简短的规章,以执行2015年4月执行法令规定的网络犯罪和网络恐怖主义制裁(网络制裁)。网络制裁计划将会把从事网络犯罪或网络恐怖主义的单位和个人标为特别指定国民。美国公民将被禁止与特别指定国民进行交易,且特别指定国民在美国的资产和财产将被冻结。该规章还允许美国对全世界范围内向网络特别指定国民提供财政、物质和技术支持的人进行制裁。网络制裁作为对来自朝鲜、中国、俄罗斯和伊朗企业于2014-2015年所进行的大规模商业间谍活动的回应而大范围地发展。
 
 
三、Trade Remedies and Legal Developments in International Trade
贸易救济和国际贸易领域的法律发展
 
Preliminary Finding of Dumping in China Solar Cell Case:  The Department of Commerce issued on December 24 a preliminary finding that both Yingli Energy (China) Company Limited and Changzhou Trina Solar Energy Co., Ltd. and Trina Solar (Changzhou) Science & Technology Co., Ltd., had sold subject merchandise in the United States at prices below normal value from December 2013 through November 2014. The merchandise covered by the order is crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, and modules, laminates, and panels, consisting of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not partially or fully assembled into other products, including, but not limited to, modules, laminates, panels and building integrated materials.
美国对华晶体硅光伏电池作出反倾销行政复审初裁:美国商务部于12月24日公布初裁结果,认定英利能源(中国)有限公司(Yingli Energy (China) Company Limited)、常州天合光能有限公司(Changzhou Trina Solar Energy Co., Ltd)、常州天合光能科技有限公司(Trina Solar (Changzhou) Science and Technology Co., Ltd.)于2013年12月至2014年11月间以低于正常价值的价格将被调查产品出口美国。本案的被调查产品为晶体硅光伏电池以及晶体硅光伏电池组成的组件、电池片和电池板,无论是否部分或全部组装成其他产品,包括但不限于组件、电池片和电池板和建筑合成材料。
 
Preliminary Finding Issued on Corrosion-Resistant Steel from China (A-570-026): The Department of Commerce on January 4 preliminarily determined that certain corrosion-resistant steel products (corrosion-resistant steel) from China are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair value. Commerce has determined a preliminary AD rate of 255.80 percent for the China-wide entity as well as for Yieu Phui Technomaterial (China) Co. Ltd, Union Steel China, and Jiangyin Zongcheng Steel.
美国对华耐蚀钢作出反倾销调查初裁(A-570-026):美国商务部于1月4日公布对华耐蚀钢反倾销调查的初裁结果,裁定来自中国的耐蚀钢产品已经以并在将来可能以低于正常价值的价格在美国销售。美国商务部裁定中国普遍初裁反倾销税率为255.80%,Yieu Phui Technomaterial (China) Co. Ltd、Union Steel China和Jiangyin Zongcheng Steel的初裁反倾销税率亦为255.80%。
 
New AD/CVD Orders Issued on Chinese Melamine: Based on affirmative final determinations by the Department of Commerce and the International Trade Commission the Department of Commerce issued on December 24 antidumping duty (“AD”) and countervailing duty (“CVD”) orders on melamine from the People’s Republic of China. The PRC AD tariff is assessed at 363.31%. Commerce will direct US Customs to assess countervailing duties on unliquidated entries of melamine entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption on or after April 20, 2015.
美国对华三聚氰胺发布反倾销和反补贴征税令:12月24日,根据美国国际贸易委员会和美国商务部的肯定性终裁结果,美国商务部对华三聚氰胺发布反倾销和反补贴征税令。中国普遍的反倾销税率为363.31%。美国商务部将指导美国海关对于自2015年4月20日起未清关的或从仓库撤出的三聚氰胺征收反补贴税。
 
Sunset Review Set for Magnesium Metal from China (A-570-896): Commerce announced a forthcoming 2nd sunset review on AD duties for magnesium metal from China will be initiated in February, 2016.
对华金属镁反倾销日落复审(A-570-896):美国商务部预测将于2016年2月对华金属镁启动第二次反倾销日落复审调查。
 
ITC Set for Various Sunset Reviews: The ITC announced on January 4th that Sunset reviews are forthcoming on AD/CVD orders concerning the following cases:
美国国际贸易委员启动多个日落复审调查:美国国际贸易委员于1月4日公布将对以下产品进行反倾销和/或反补贴日落复审调查
·         Seamless Refined Copper Pipe and Tube from China and Mexico (731-TA-1174-1175)
原产于中国和墨西哥的精炼铜管材(731-TA-1174-1175)
·         Iron Construction Castings from Brazil, Canada, and China (701-TA-249 and 731-TA- 262-263 and 265) (4th Review)
原产于巴西、加拿大和中国的铁结构铸件(701-TA-249和731-TA- 262-263-265)(第4次复审)
·         Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses from China and Indonesia (701-TA-470-471 and 731-TA-1169-1170)
原产于中国和印度尼西亚的用于单张纸印刷机打印高质量列印图标的铜版纸(701-TA-470-471 和 731-TA-1169-1170)
·         Certain Seamless Carbon and Alloy Steel Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe from China (701-TA-469 and 731-TA-1168)
原产于中国的无缝碳钢和合金钢标准管、管线管和压力管(701-TA-469和 731-TA-1168)
 
Developments in DOC Cold-Rolled Steel Investigation: The DOC announced a preliminary determination December 15th that critical circumstances exist with regard to steel importers Angang Hong Kong, Benxi Iron and Steel and Qian’an Golden Point. In addition, they announced that the final CVD and AD determinations would be aligned, and are currently scheduled for May 8, 2015. (A-533-865)
美国商务部冷轧钢板反倾销和反补贴调查的新发展:美国商务部于12月15日在初裁中认定Angang Hong Kong、 Benxi Iron and Steel和 Qian'an Golden Point存在突击出口的情况。此外,美国商务部公布最终反倾销和反补贴调查目前计划将于2015年5月8日作出。(A-533-865)
 
Annual Administrative Reviews for China AD and CVD Cases: Each year during the anniversary month of the publication of an antidumping or countervailing duty order, finding, or suspended investigation, an interested party may request, in accordance with 19 CFR 351.213, that the Department of Commerce conduct an administrative review of that antidumping or countervailing duty order, finding, or suspended investigation. The following cases involving Chinese products qualify for such a request in January, 2016:
对华反倾销和反补贴年度行政复审的案件:在每年公布反倾销或反补贴征税令、裁决或暂停调查的相应月份,根据19 CFR 351.213,利益相关方可以申请美国商务部进行行政复审。以下案件为2016年1月可以申请行政复审的案件:
·                     Calcium Hypochlorite (次氯酸钙)A–570–008
·                     Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod (碳和某些合金钢线材)A–570–012
·                     Crepe Paper Products (绉纸)A–570–895
·                     Ferrovanadium (铁钒)A–570–873
·                     Folding Gift Boxes (折叠礼品盒)A–570–866
·                     Potassium Permanganate (高锰酸钾)A–570–001
·                     Wooden Bedroom Furniture (木制卧室家具)A–570–890
·                     Calcium Hypochlorite (次氯酸钙)C–570–009
·                     Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod (碳和某些合金钢线材)C–570–013
·                     Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods (石油管材)C–570–944
·                     Circular Welded Carbon Quality Steel Line Pipe (圆形焊接碳钢线管)C–570–936
 
 
U.S. Court of International Trade
美国国际贸易法院
 
·                     CP Kelco Biological Company Ltd of Shandong province filed a case with the Court of International Trade on December 22, challenging the decision of the US Department of Commerce to not individually review the company in an antidumping administrative review involving xanthan gum from China.
上海市CP Kelco Biological Company Ltd于12月22日在美国国际贸易法院起诉美国商务部在对华黄原胶反倾销行政复审中没有对该公司进行单独审查。
 
·                     The United States Court of International Trade on December 28 invalidated the Department of Commerce’s interpretation of scope regarding antidumping duties on petroleum wax candles from China for the second time, insisting on a narrow reading of the original 1987 order. The order lists a variety of specific candle types where denoting scope, but since 2001, Commerce has considered the specified candles as mere examples, thereby broadening the scope of the order. This interpretation was challenged and sent back for redetermination by the CIT after candle importer Trade Associates Group challenged a 2014 decision that imposed duties on their candles. Commerce came back with a new scope interpretation encompassing all “common candle shapes or types,” which was again rejected by the CIT for its use of criteria absent from the original text of the order.
美国国际贸易法院于12月28日第二次裁定美国商务部在对华石油蜡反倾销行政复审调查中对产品范围的解释无效,应当坚持原来1987年反倾销税令作出的狭义解读。反倾销税令在解释产品范围时列举了一系列特定的蜡烛种类,但自2001年来,美国商务部将这些列举出的特定蜡烛种类仅作为示例,从而扩大了产品范围。该解释已经被美国进口商Trade Associates Group起诉,并且美国国际贸易法院已经裁决发回重审。美国商务部重审后裁定了一个新的产品范围解释,被调查产品包括所有“普通的蜡烛种类”,该解释再一次被美国国际贸易法院裁定为不符合原反倾销税令的文本。
·                     The United States Court of International Trade on December 11th ruled that the US Department of Commerce was justified in foregoing an investigation into allegations of Chinese government subsidies as part of a determination of tariffs on solar cells. Oregon- based Solarworld Americas Inc. claimed that Commerce should have investigated allegations from 2011 and 2012 involving aluminum extrusions and glass, both components in solar panels. The CIT ruled based on the assertion that Solarworld did not provide sufficient evidence to spur an investigation, and that there was insufficient time given the plethora of other Solarworld-petitioned investigations happening simultaneously.
美国国际贸易法院于12月11日裁定美国商务部在对华光伏电池反补贴案中的将中国政府补贴视为部分关税的做法是合法的。Oregon- based Solarworld Americas Inc.主张美国商务部应当调查2011-2012年光伏组件中的原材料铝型材和玻璃。美国国际贸易法院裁定Solarworld没有提供足够证据来支持其应当发起调查的主张,且没有足够的时间来同时进行Solarworld申请的其他调查。
 
 
四、U.S. Regulatory and Legislative Developments
美国规章和法律发展
 
Internet Tax and China Currency Debate Delays Customs Enforcement Bill: Customs enforcement legislation already approved by the House of Representatives remains delayed in the US Senate over a long standing debate over Internet taxation. Current language in the bill would create a permanent moratorium on state taxes on Internet commerce. The moratorium is opposed by members of both parties.   Democrats and Republicans also share concerns that the customs bill does not include tariff or other economic penalties against currency manipulation. This concern specifically targets China. Senate Democrats are also seeking to strengthen provisions in the bill regarding how the US responds to foreign violations of legal trade obligations, and to deny trade benefits to countries deemed by the US State Department to abuse human rights.
网络税收和中国货币政策讨论推迟关税执行法案:已经由众议院通过的关税执行法案由于对网络税收的长期争论依然没有为参议院所通过。目前的法案规定将永远地停止对网络商务征收州税。此项禁令为两党成员所反对。民主党人和共和党人均担心该法案不包括使用关税或其他经济处罚来处罚操纵货币。这项担心尤其针对中国。参议院的民主党人还试图加强法案中关于美国如何回应外国违反法定贸易义务以及拒绝与美国国务院认定的践踏人权的国家进行贸易的相关条款。
 
Trans-Pacific Partnership FTA (TPP) Faces Difficult Legislative Path: Despite growing support from major US trade associations and big industry, the US Congress may not ratify the TPP trade agreement this year. The Obama Administration has deployed senior officials to lobby Congress to support the deal, but deep concerns with the FTA’s benefits exist within both the Republican and Democratic parties. Presidential election politics also shorten the legislative calendar in Congress, while leading candidates in both parties have severely criticized the TPP, further reducing the chances for ratification before the 2016 elections are held in November.
TPP面临艰难的立法路程:尽管主要的美国贸易协会和大的行业的支持不断加大,美国国会仍可能不在今年批准TPP协议。奥巴马政府已经派出高级官员游说国会支持TPP协议,但是共和党和民主党均有对TPP利益的担忧。总统选举政治也阻碍了国会的立法进程,由于两党中的重要候选人均对TPP提出严重批评。这进一步减小在11月2016年选举之前批准的可能。
 
GOP Leaders See Agreement Possible on International Tax Deal: Senate Finance Chairman Orrin Hatch (R-UT) and House Ways & Means Chairman Kevin Brady (R-TX) have indicated their support for legislation in 2016 to reduce the tax burden on multinational corporations in the United States. Republicans seek to significantly reduce the 28% effective rate on international corporations. The core difficulty in producing viable legislation will be the need to develop a compromise between the Republican desire to implement a VAT which exempts foreign profits, and a rate reduction under the current tax regime favored by Democrats.
共和党领袖看到关于国际税收方面取得一致同意的可能:参议院财政委员会主席Orrin Hatch (R- Utah)和众议院筹款委员会主席Kevin Brady (R-Texas)已经表明他们对2016年进行减小在美国的跨国公司的税收负担立法的支持。共和党人试图对跨国公司减少28%的有效税负。核心的难题在于制定一项可行法律,在共和党人希望执行免除外国利润的增值税和民主党人希望对现行税收进行税率降低的两种做法之间取得妥协。
 
 
 
五、World Trade Organization Developments
世界贸易组织的发展
 
Japan Requests to Join China Aircraft tax Dispute: Japanese delegates to the WTO in Geneva on December 21 requested to join the request for consultations by the United States circulated to WTO Members on 10 December 2015 titled "China - Tax Measures Concerning Certain Domestically Produced Aircraft" (as WTO document WT/DS501/1, G/L/1141). The Japanese government cited its role as a major supplier of aircraft parts, and noted that the Chinese measures identified by the United States appear to adversely affect international trade of aircraft parts originating from Japan which are used for manufacturing aircrafts destined for China.
日本要求加入中国飞机税收措施案:日本驻日内瓦的WTO代表于12月21日要求加入美国于2015年12月10日发布给WTO成员方的题为“中国对国产飞机的税收措施案”(WTO文件WT/DS501/1、G/L/1141)的磋商程序。日本政府称其为全球飞机零部件的主要供应商,该案中涉及的相关措施会对日本对中国的飞机零部件出口贸易造成不利影响。
 
China MFA Calls for End to Nonmarket Status in 2016: Speaking on January 4, Chinese Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Lu Kang called on the United States and the EU to abide by Article 15 of the Protocol of China’s Accession to the WTO, which requires members to stop using an alternative calculation method in anti-dumping investigations against China after December 11, 2016.
中国外交部发言人要求于2016年结束中国的非市场经济地位待遇:1月4日,中国外交部发言人陆慷要求美国和欧盟遵守中国入世协定书第15条,根据该条规定,WTO成员方不得在2016年12月11日后在对中国的反倾销调查中使用替代国计算方法。
 

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